The Bush family mantra has been consistent for generations: First make a lot of money, and then focus on public service.
Jeb Bush followed that path before running for governor of Florida in the 1990s, and 33 years of newly released tax returns show how the Republican embraced that strategy with zeal before launching his presidential campaign this year.
Bush’s income jumped from $261,000 in 2006, his final year as governor, to more than $2.2 million in 2007. Then, from 2010 through 2013, tax returns released Tuesday show his annual income exploded from $3.2 million to nearly $7.4 million. (He got an extension until Oct. 15 to file his 2014 return.)
The vast majority of income came from consulting and speaking fees, where Bush earned between $40,000 and $75,000 apiece for dozens of appearances before business and trade groups, colleges, and organizations ranging from The Salvation Army to a South Korean defense contractor.
His income in 2013 included $5.8 million from a speaking and consulting business he ran with one of his sons — $2 million alone coming from British banking giant Barclays. It includes more than $97,000 for a corporation called Old Rhodes Holdings, which Bush created in 2011 to make money in the disaster response business; more than $125,000 from Britton Hill Advisors, another Bush venture raising money for assorted energy projects including hydraulic fracking; and nearly $180,000 from De Soto Partners, another limited liability corporation founded by Bush.
Precisely how those firms earned the money is unclear.
The former real estate executive whose net worth dropped from roughly $2 million to $1.3 million during his eight years in office, today is worth between $19 million and $22 million, according to the campaign.
“Most of my adult life has been spent in the private sector, not in government,” Bush, 62, said in releasing an unprecedented 33 years of tax returns, which his campaign said is more than any other candidate in history has released.
“I’ve been graced with good fortune, by having the most wonderful parents in the world, the best business partners a man could ask for, and opportunities that are out of reach for too many Americans,” Bush said in a statement.
“But part of the reason they are out of reach is that we have a tax code that stifles growth and opportunity. In my case, I paid the government more than one in three dollars that I earned in my career.”
In posting 1,150 pages of personal financial information online Tuesday afternoon at Jeb2016.com. Bush sought to cast himself as a model of transparency in contrast to Democrat Hillary Clinton.
The Democratic frontrunner has not said how many years of returns she intends to release, but a campaign aide noted that 30 years of her returns have been released previously through past disclosures from her and former President Bill Clinton.
Bush’s release also served to contrast him to 2012 Republican nominee Mitt Romney, who, after weeks of criticism, reluctantly released two years of tax returns that showed he paid an effective tax rate of about 14 percent, opening him up to scrutiny from reporters and attacks by rivals.
Bush’s effective tax rate from 1981 to 2013 was about 36 percent — much higher than Romney’s because most of Bush’s income was regular income rather than capital gains, which are taxed a lower rate.
But Bush’s private-sector experience is likely to draw plenty of fire from Republicans and Democrats alike. He has done business over the years with several business partners later implicated in criminal activity, and some of his interests have already drawn criticism from Republican rivals.
After leaving the governor’s office in 2007, Bush joined the boards of several corporations, including Tenet Healthcare, which supported the Affordable Care Act. Though Bush often criticizes that law, he earned millions of dollars from Tenet. He added to that by selling Tenet stock in 2013, doubling a $441,000 investment just two years earlier.
Likewise, his ties to such financial giants as Lehman Brothers and Barclays have drawn criticism. Last week a Super PAC backing Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky launched an online ad in early primary states mocking Bush as “Bailout Bush” for his support for the Troubled Asset Relief Program, or TARP, that propped up the financial industry.
Much as Bush touts his private-sector experience, the records also underscore how, just like the Clintons, his last name helped him earn much of his wealth.
Speeches for cash
Bush has earned nearly $10 million in speaking fees since leaving the governor’s office, including nearly $2.4 million for 50 speeches in 2013.
“I learned a lot. I talked to a lot of people that have added a lot of value in my life,” Bush said of his extensive speaking fees, joking that Chelsea Clinton commanded higher fees.
No other candidate or prospective presidential candidate this year has committed to releasing as many tax returns as Bush. He denied he was seeking to put pressure on rivals, but Bush’s move could certainly have that effect.
“They’ll figure out what to do,” he said, speaking with a group of reporters from a law firm near the White House.
“I’m proud of the fact that we’ve released more tax returns than any candidate in the history of the United States, barely beating out Bob Dole by the way.”
Dole released 30 years of returns in 1996. George W. Bush released nine years in 2000, George H.W. Bush released 14 years in 1988, and Bill Clinton released 12 in 1992.
Bush’s transparency has limits. He would not commit to releasing more details about some of his consulting clients or several limited liability corporations he had created but has since resigned from. Confidentiality agreements prohibit full disclosure, he said.
People pouring over his reports likely will be drawn to overseas investments.
The funds were part of Abbey Capital accounts managed by SunTrust, Bush’s longtime bank, and were located in Malta and Bermuda. Bush said he full paid taxes on the investments, and even lost some money, about $22,000.
His campaign said the “passive investment funds” represented less than 2 percent of his overall holdings.
Bush called attention to the high overall tax rate his team said he paid, calling it “a little daunting. … It’s not something I’m bragging about. I didn’t focus on sheltering that income.”
But he said it was reason to streamline a Byzantine tax code that is full of what he called “maddening deductions.”
“I’m grateful to be able to pay 40 percent of my income in taxes because I’ve worked hard and I’ve earned it. But at the same time, it does make me feel compelled to find out ways where we can reform code for people who may have limits on their aspirations because of it.”
The Bush campaign also highlighted his philanthropy: $739,000 given to charities since leaving office.
On top of that, aides said he raised more than $1 million, for the Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence; nearly $7.5 million for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation; $17 million for the Barbara Bush Foundation Celebration Of Reading; and $46 million for the education reform foundation he created, the Foundation For Excellence In Education.
Bush arrived in Florida after the 1980 presidential election, in which his father sought the nomination but ended up on the ticket with Ronald Reagan. John Ellis “Jeb” Bush went to work in real estate with Armando Codina, who had been his father’s local campaign coordinator.
His starting salary was $42,000, and that grew to $186,000, in five years. In 1992, his income topped $1 million and by his first run for governor two years later, his net worth was $2.3 million.
Bush’s fortunes took a hit during his eight years as governor, which ended in 2007, and his net worth was $1.3 million.
“Thank god for term limits,” Bush joked Tuesday.
He characterized the effort as the next step in opening up his life to the public, noting how he already posted on a website more than 200,000 emails from his time as governor.
“In Florida people know me. In Northwest Iowa they may not,” he said. “This is part of an effort to be as real and genuine as I can be. I don’t have a problem with sharing my life. … It’s not a life that’s been scripted to run for president. I’m an adult. I’ve lived a life with ups and downs. Through that you gain wisdom.”
Tampa Bay Washington Bureau Chief Alex Leary can be reached at email@example.com. Tampa Bay Times Political Editor Adam C. Smith can reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Tampa Bay Times staff writer Jeff Harrington contributed to this report.